Coming Soon:

The following books by Robert Paul Wolff are available on Amazon.com as e-books: KANT'S THEORY OF MENTAL ACTIVITY, THE AUTONOMY OF REASON, UNDERSTANDING MARX, UNDERSTANDING RAWLS, THE POVERTY OF LIBERALISM, A LIFE IN THE ACADEMY, MONEYBAGS MUST BE SO LUCKY, AN INTRODUCTION TO THE USE OF FORMAL METHODS IN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY.
Now Available: Volumes I, II, III, and IV of the Collected Published and Unpublished Papers.

NOW AVAILABLE ON YOUTUBE: LECTURES ON KANT'S CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON. To view the lectures, go to YouTube and search for "Robert Paul Wolff Kant." There they will be.

To contact me about organizing, email me at rpwolff750@gmail.com




Total Pageviews

Thursday, August 24, 2017

THE CHAIN OF COMMAND

With startling speed, public commentary about Trump has moved to open expressions of doubt about his mental stability and the threat that this poses to the safety of the world.  A number of cable news commentators have expressed the hope that the generals with whom Trump has surrounded himself – Kelly, Mattis, McMaster – will dissuade him from launching a nuclear attack on North Korea in a fit of pique.  This speculation was given new currency by the dire warnings of James Clapper, an Army Lieutenant General who is recently retired from a seven year stint as Director of National Intelligence.  I think it is important to understand why this speculation is misguided, and why General Clapper is so worried.  The readers of this blog may all understand these matters, but since this is quite literally the most important subject in the world just now, a little repetition will not hurt.

During the Cold War, American military planners believed the nation to be in perpetual danger of a preemptive nuclear attack by the Soviet Union [whether this was true is irrelevant for what I am saying, as will become clear.]  The received scientific wisdom was that there was no defense against such an attack, once launched.  Hence it was essential to deter the Soviet Union from attacking by so arranging America’s nuclear arsenal that it could respond with absolute certainty and reliability to an attack, regardless of the extent of the damage.  Despite the existence of a fleet of American nuclear submarines perpetually on patrol in the world’s oceans, armed with half-megaton missiles capable of being fired with sufficient accuracy to obliterate a Russian city, there were considerations that seemed to American planners to necessitate circumventing the ordinary military chain of command.

Under normal non-nuclear circumstances, when the order to launch an attack of some sort is given by the President in his or her role as Commander in Chief, the order goes to the Secretary of Defense, who conveys it to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who in turn conveys it to the Chief of Staff of the appropriate service [Army, Navy, or Air Force], who sends it down to the commander overseeing the unit tasked with the attack, who then communicates the order to the field commander of the men and women actually selected to carry out the attack.  This is the chain of command, and everything in the military rests on it.

But military planners believed that it might prove impossible to rely on this chain of command in the event of a nuclear attack.  They recognized that if the Russian attack came by way of intercontinental ballistic missiles, there would be at most eight or ten minutes between the time when the missile launches were detected by radar and the time when the missiles struck the United States.  This posed a series of problems:

First, the President might be killed, leaving a constitutional vacuum with no settled way to determine who now had the authority to order a counterattack with such weapons as survived the first strike.  Second, key individuals in the chain of command might be killed, disrupting the orderly transmission of a Presidential order.  Third, communications might be interrupted physically or electronically, making it impossible for a lawful launch order actually to reach the missile silo personnel or the Captain of a nuclear submarine.  Fourth, even if a lawful order did reach the military personnel actually in a position to fire the nuclear weapons, it might be impossible for those men and women to double check the order by communicating back to headquarters before carrying out the order.

For all these reasons [and some others besides,] the deliberate decision was made entirely to circumvent the normal chain of command and place at the hand of the President the ability unilaterally to order a nuclear strike immediately and without the chance for second thoughts or countermanding or even slow walking down the chain.  Hence the oft mentioned “nuclear football” containing the launch codes, carried by a uniformed officer who accompanies the President everywhere.  Hence also the training and clear orders to missile silo personnel or nuclear submarine Captains designed to guarantee that once the launch order is received with the proper codes, it will be immediately carried out.

Now, if General Kelly or General McMaster or General Mattis happens to be in the room when Trump decides to launch a nuclear attack, the general can try to dissuade Trump.  He can even go against a lifetime of training and experience and physically try to wrestle Trump to the ground and stop him from giving the order.  But should Trump be alone when he gets it into his head to start a nuclear war, there is nothing between him and the men and women who will actually launch the attack.


General Clapper knows all of this, of course.  That is why he is worried.

10 comments:

David Palmeter said...

I have been worried about this since the day this maniac was elected. It's high time for impeachment or Article 25 removal. With any luck, his attacks on McConnell and Ryan will facilitate one of those processes.

Anonymous said...

Would it be OK if I cross-posted this article to WriterBeat.com? There is no fee; I’m simply trying to add morfe content diversity for our community and I enjoyed reading your work. I’ll be sure to give you complete credit as the author. If “OK” please let me know via email.

Autumn
AutumnCote@WriterBeat.com

LFC said...

I happened to notice that today's front-page story in USA Today (not something I usu. read) is on this subject (i.e., Trump's mental health and the growing discussion thereof).

howard b said...

I can picture him dangling the threat of the nuclear button overhead as leverage against impeachment.
Trump is a casino denizen- so I ask, what are the odds, precisely?

howard b said...

David- if Trump is bad for business, he's fired. Otherwise, McConnell and Ryan won't touch him. All Republicans at core are authoritarian. Trump's the flag and you stick with him like our country, right or wrong. Plus, they think they're up to the task of handling such a rogue character such as Trump.
Though Trump manifestly is barely fit as a human being, they could care less.
The whole situation is distressing and disturbing, to say the least

David Palmeter said...

Howard b

I agree generally that Trump doesn't get fired unless he's bad for business, but I'd define "business" to include not only $$$ but elected office. If McConnell or Ryan feels his own seat is danger (Ryan only; McConnell was just re-elected) or their majorities threatened, I believe they'd turn against Trump very quickly. Trump's antics haven't gone that far yet, but he's moving in the right direction. I just saw an online report that he has now personally attacked 21 of the 52 Republican senators. I hope he keeps it up.

Jerry Brown said...

Howard, I admit I have no idea why republicans think the way they do but I really can't see either McConnell or Ryan being all that happy with Trump. The guy is a loose cannon, and loose cannons might hurt your own side sometimes. And if they are nuclear they might just end your side and every other side. I think they are almost as scared as I am, but I don't know.

s. wallerstein said...

What if the generals tell the officer with the launch codes to refuse any order from Trump unless they ok it first?

Robert Paul Wolff said...

That would, I suspect, be a court martial offence on the part of the generals.

s. wallerstein said...

If the generals tell an officer to refuse a direct order from the president in order to prevent a nuclear attack, then it's a military coup of sorts, and if the nuclear attack is successfully prevented, the generals and that officer are going to be heroes. As for Trump, they'd have to force his resignation somehow, maybe with a literal pistol to his head. That's not very democratic, but it beats nuclear war.

If I can imagine the officer refusing in order from Trump, then the generals, who are directly involved in the chain of command, most probably have given the idea a thought too.